This is the road to next-generation AI
As always, great article. Perhaps we would need a Kuhn's paradigm shift for AI, where Neuroscience, AI and Cognitive Psychology could converge to a new foundation to reach AGI. You raised a much-needed review in the AI field, which is still a long way to go. I would like to add to your discussion the underrated field of Computational Psychology which explores the computational cognitive modeling, a possibly key factor for an AGI that would almost certainly interact somehow with human beings. (BTW, a good reference on this matter is the book: The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology).
Great article. Thanks for sharing it.
Have you read Jeff Hawkins’ book A Thousand Brains? Its arguments are very much in-line with your own. A major theme of the book is built around his belief that our modern understanding of neurons should serve as a guide for the design or AI systems. The book might be too basic for someone well-versed in these fields, but as a non-computer scientist I found it accessible and interesting. Regardless, I do agree with your position that we should look at biological systems for ideas of new ways to model intelligence... at least until we figure out a superior method.
First, defining humans as intelligent requires some imagination. Please let us recall that we are the species with a massive loaded gun in it's mouth (nuclear weapons), that we typically find too boring to bother discussing. A single human being can destroy modern civilization in just minutes, and we aren't interested. Intelligent??
Instead of studying neuroscience to make AI more powerful, we should be studying thousands of years of human behavior, an investigation which would provide us with a pretty credible look at what powerful AI is likely to be used for, more killing, more conquest, more domination of the weak by the strong, more concentration of wealth at the top of society etc.
If we're going to ignore logic, common sense, and human history, and continue to develop AI anyway, modeling it on the human brain seems a very questionable proposition.